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Java线程:新特征-条件变量  

2011-09-20 14:57:11|  分类: java技术 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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条件变量是Java5线程中很重要的一个概念,顾名思义,条件变量就是表示条件的一种变量。但是必须说明,这里的条件是没有实际含义的,仅仅是个标记而已,并且条件的含义往往通过代码来赋予其含义。
 
这里的条件和普通意义上的条件表达式有着天壤之别。
 
条件变量都实现了java.util.concurrent.locks.Condition接口,条件变量的实例化是通过一个Lock对象上 调用newCondition()方法来获取的,这样,条件就和一个锁对象绑定起来了。因此,Java中的条件变量只能和锁配合使用,来控制并发程序访问 竞争资源的安全。
 
条件变量的出现是为了更精细控制线程等待与唤醒,在Java5之前,线程的等待与唤醒依靠的是Object对象的wait()和notify()/notifyAll()方法,这样的处理不够精细。
 
而在Java5中,一个锁可以有多个条件,每个条件上可以有多个线程等待,通过调用await()方法,可以让线程在该条件下等待。当调用signalAll()方法,又可以唤醒该条件下的等待的线程。有关Condition接口的API可以具体参考JavaAPI文档。
 
条件变量比较抽象,原因是他不是自然语言中的条件概念,而是程序控制的一种手段。
 
下面以一个银行存取款的模拟程序为例来揭盖Java多线程条件变量的神秘面纱:
 
有一个账户,多个用户(线程)在同时操作这个账户,有的存款有的取款,存款随便存,取款有限制,不能透支,任何试图透支的操作都将等待里面有足够存款才执行操作。
 
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Condition;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;

/**
* Java线程:条件变量
*
* @author leizhimin 2009-11-5 10:57:29
*/

public class Test {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
                //创建并发访问的账户
                MyCount myCount = new MyCount("95599200901215522", 10000);
                //创建一个线程池
                ExecutorService pool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(2);
                Thread t1 = new SaveThread("张三", myCount, 2000);
                Thread t2 = new SaveThread("李四", myCount, 3600);
                Thread t3 = new DrawThread("王五", myCount, 2700);
                Thread t4 = new SaveThread("老张", myCount, 600);
                Thread t5 = new DrawThread("老牛", myCount, 1300);
                Thread t6 = new DrawThread("胖子", myCount, 800);
                //执行各个线程
                pool.execute(t1);
                pool.execute(t2);
                pool.execute(t3);
                pool.execute(t4);
                pool.execute(t5);
                pool.execute(t6);
                //关闭线程池
                pool.shutdown();
        }
}

/**
* 存款线程类
*/

class SaveThread extends Thread {
        private String name;                //操作人
        private MyCount myCount;        //账户
        private int x;                            //存款金额

        SaveThread(String name, MyCount myCount, int x) {
                this.name = name;
                this.myCount = myCount;
                this.x = x;
        }

        public void run() {
                myCount.saving(x, name);
        }
}

/**
* 取款线程类
*/

class DrawThread extends Thread {
        private String name;                //操作人
        private MyCount myCount;        //账户
        private int x;                            //存款金额

        DrawThread(String name, MyCount myCount, int x) {
                this.name = name;
                this.myCount = myCount;
                this.x = x;
        }

        public void run() {
                myCount.drawing(x, name);
        }
}


/**
* 普通银行账户,不可透支
*/

class MyCount {
        private String oid;                         //账号
        private int cash;                             //账户余额
        private Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();                //账户锁
        private Condition _save = lock.newCondition();    //存款条件
        private Condition _draw = lock.newCondition();    //取款条件

        MyCount(String oid, int cash) {
                this.oid = oid;
                this.cash = cash;
        }

        /**
         * 存款
         *
         * @param x        操作金额
         * @param name 操作人
         */

        public void saving(int x, String name) {
                lock.lock();                        //获取锁
                if (x > 0) {
                        cash += x;                    //存款
                        System.out.println(name + "存款" + x + ",当前余额为" + cash);
                }
                _draw.signalAll();            //唤醒所有等待线程。
                lock.unlock();                    //释放锁
        }

        /**
         * 取款
         *
         * @param x        操作金额
         * @param name 操作人
         */

        public void drawing(int x, String name) {
                lock.lock();                                 //获取锁
                try {
                        if (cash - x < 0) {
                                _draw.await();             //阻塞取款操作
                        } else {
                                cash -= x;                     //取款
                                System.out.println(name + "取款" + x + ",当前余额为" + cash);
                        }
                        _save.signalAll();             //唤醒所有存款操作
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                } finally {
                        lock.unlock();                     //释放锁
                }
        }
}
 
 
李四存款3600,当前余额为13600
张三存款2000,当前余额为15600
老张存款600,当前余额为16200
老牛取款1300,当前余额为14900
胖子取款800,当前余额为14100
王五取款2700,当前余额为11400

Process finished with exit code 0
 
假如我们不用锁和条件变量,如何实现此功能呢?下面是实现代码:
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

/**
* Java线程:不用条件变量
*
* @author leizhimin 2009-11-5 10:57:29
*/

public class Test {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
                //创建并发访问的账户
                MyCount myCount = new MyCount("95599200901215522", 10000);
                //创建一个线程池
                ExecutorService pool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(2);
                Thread t1 = new SaveThread("张三", myCount, 2000);
                Thread t2 = new SaveThread("李四", myCount, 3600);
                Thread t3 = new DrawThread("王五", myCount, 2700);
                Thread t4 = new SaveThread("老张", myCount, 600);
                Thread t5 = new DrawThread("老牛", myCount, 1300);
                Thread t6 = new DrawThread("胖子", myCount, 800);
                //执行各个线程
                pool.execute(t1);
                pool.execute(t2);
                pool.execute(t3);
                pool.execute(t4);
                pool.execute(t5);
                pool.execute(t6);
                //关闭线程池
                pool.shutdown();
        }
}

/**
* 存款线程类
*/

class SaveThread extends Thread {
        private String name;                //操作人
        private MyCount myCount;        //账户
        private int x;                            //存款金额

        SaveThread(String name, MyCount myCount, int x) {
                this.name = name;
                this.myCount = myCount;
                this.x = x;
        }

        public void run() {
                myCount.saving(x, name);
        }
}

/**
* 取款线程类
*/

class DrawThread extends Thread {
        private String name;                //操作人
        private MyCount myCount;        //账户
        private int x;                            //存款金额

        DrawThread(String name, MyCount myCount, int x) {
                this.name = name;
                this.myCount = myCount;
                this.x = x;
        }

        public void run() {
                myCount.drawing(x, name);
        }
}


/**
* 普通银行账户,不可透支
*/

class MyCount {
        private String oid;                         //账号
        private int cash;                             //账户余额

        MyCount(String oid, int cash) {
                this.oid = oid;
                this.cash = cash;
        }

        /**
         * 存款
         *
         * @param x        操作金额
         * @param name 操作人
         */

        public synchronized void saving(int x, String name) {
                if (x > 0) {
                        cash += x;                    //存款
                        System.out.println(name + "存款" + x + ",当前余额为" + cash);
                }
                notifyAll();            //唤醒所有等待线程。
        }

        /**
         * 取款
         *
         * @param x        操作金额
         * @param name 操作人
         */

        public synchronized void drawing(int x, String name) {
                if (cash - x < 0) {
                        try {
                                wait();
                        } catch (InterruptedException e1) {
                                e1.printStackTrace();
                        }
                } else {
                        cash -= x;                     //取款
                        System.out.println(name + "取款" + x + ",当前余额为" + cash);
                }
                notifyAll();             //唤醒所有存款操作
        }
}
 
输出结果为:
李四存款3600,当前余额为13600
王五取款2700,当前余额为10900
老张存款600,当前余额为11500
老牛取款1300,当前余额为10200
胖子取款800,当前余额为9400
张三存款2000,当前余额为11400

Process finished with exit code 0
 
结合先前同步代码知识,举一反三,将此例改为同步代码块来实现,代码如下:
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

/**
* Java线程:改为同步代码块
*
* @author leizhimin 2009-11-5 10:57:29
*/

public class Test {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
                //创建并发访问的账户
                MyCount myCount = new MyCount("95599200901215522", 10000);
                //创建一个线程池
                ExecutorService pool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(2);
                Thread t1 = new SaveThread("张三", myCount, 2000);
                Thread t2 = new SaveThread("李四", myCount, 3600);
                Thread t3 = new DrawThread("王五", myCount, 2700);
                Thread t4 = new SaveThread("老张", myCount, 600);
                Thread t5 = new DrawThread("老牛", myCount, 1300);
                Thread t6 = new DrawThread("胖子", myCount, 800);
                //执行各个线程
                pool.execute(t1);
                pool.execute(t2);
                pool.execute(t3);
                pool.execute(t4);
                pool.execute(t5);
                pool.execute(t6);
                //关闭线程池
                pool.shutdown();
        }
}

/**
* 存款线程类
*/

class SaveThread extends Thread {
        private String name;                //操作人
        private MyCount myCount;        //账户
        private int x;                            //存款金额

        SaveThread(String name, MyCount myCount, int x) {
                this.name = name;
                this.myCount = myCount;
                this.x = x;
        }

        public void run() {
                myCount.saving(x, name);
        }
}

/**
* 取款线程类
*/

class DrawThread extends Thread {
        private String name;                //操作人
        private MyCount myCount;        //账户
        private int x;                            //存款金额

        DrawThread(String name, MyCount myCount, int x) {
                this.name = name;
                this.myCount = myCount;
                this.x = x;
        }

        public void run() {
                myCount.drawing(x, name);
        }
}


/**
* 普通银行账户,不可透支
*/

class MyCount {
        private String oid;                         //账号
        private int cash;                             //账户余额

        MyCount(String oid, int cash) {
                this.oid = oid;
                this.cash = cash;
        }

        /**
         * 存款
         *
         * @param x        操作金额
         * @param name 操作人
         */

        public void saving(int x, String name) {
                if (x > 0) {
                        synchronized (this) {
                                cash += x;                    //存款
                                System.out.println(name + "存款" + x + ",当前余额为" + cash);
                                notifyAll();            //唤醒所有等待线程。
                        }
                }
        }

        /**
         * 取款
         *
         * @param x        操作金额
         * @param name 操作人
         */

        public synchronized void drawing(int x, String name) {
                synchronized (this) {
                        if (cash - x < 0) {
                                try {
                                        wait();
                                } catch (InterruptedException e1) {
                                        e1.printStackTrace();
                                }
                        } else {
                                cash -= x;                     //取款
                                System.out.println(name + "取款" + x + ",当前余额为" + cash);
                        }
                }
                notifyAll();             //唤醒所有存款操作
        }
}
李四存款3600,当前余额为13600
王五取款2700,当前余额为10900
老张存款600,当前余额为11500
老牛取款1300,当前余额为10200
胖子取款800,当前余额为9400
张三存款2000,当前余额为11400

Process finished with exit code 0
 
对比以上三种方式,从控制角度上讲,第一种最灵活,第二种代码最简单,第三种容易犯错。
 

本文出自 “熔 岩” 博客


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